Analytica Chimica Acta, 981, p. 24-33 (2017); doi:10.1016/j.aca.2017.05.027
In this work, we report a simple and yet efficient stencil-printed electrochemical platform that can be integrated into the caps of sample containers and thus, allows in-field quantification of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in river water samples. The device exploits the low-cost features of carbon (as electrode material) and paper/polyester transparency sheets (as substrate). Electrochemical analysis of the working electrodes prepared on different substrates (polyester transparency sheets, chromatographic, tracing and office papers) with hexaammineruthenium(III) showed that their electroactive area and electron transfer kinetics are highly affected by the porosity of the material. Electrodes prepared on transparency substrates showed the best electroanalytical performance for the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. Interestingly, the temperature and time at which the carbon ink was cured had significant effect on the electrochemical response, especially the capacitive current. The amount of Cd and Pb on the electrode surface can be increased about 20% by in situ electrodeposition of bismuth. The electrochemical platform showed a linear range comprised between 1 and 200 mg/L for both metals, sensitivity of analysis of 0.22 and 0.087 mA/ppb and limits of detection of 0.2 and 0.3 mg/L for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The analysis of river water samples was done directly in the container where the sample was collected, which simplifies the procedure and approaches field analysis. The developed point-of-need detection system allowed simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in those samples using the standard addition method with precise and accurate results
This work has been supported by the FC-15-GRUPIN-021 project from the Asturias Regional Government and the CTQ2014-58826-R project from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO). Daniel Martín-Yerga thanks the MINECO for the award of a FPI grant (BES-2012-054408). Isabel Alvarez-Martos acknowledges the EU's support under H2020-MSCA-IF-2014 grant agreement 660339 (eADAM).