European Respiratory Journal, 49(6): 1502112 (2017); doi:10.1183/13993003.02112-2015
We assessed the effect of three different indices of urban built environment on allergic and respiratory conditions. This study involved 2472 children participating in the ongoing INMA birth cohort located in two biogeographic regions (Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean) in Spain. Residential surrounding built environment was characterised as 1) residential surrounding greenness based on satellite-derived normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), 2) residential proximity to green spaces and 3) residential surrounding greyness based on urban land use patterns. Information on wheezing, bronchitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis up to age 4 years was obtained from parent-completed questionnaires. Logistic regression and generalised estimating equation modelling were performed. Among children from the Euro-Siberian region, higher residential surrounding greenness and higher proximity to green spaces were negatively associated with wheezing. In the Mediterranean region, higher residential proximity to green spaces was associated with a reduced risk for bronchitis. A higher amount of residential surrounding greyness was found to increase the risk for bronchitis in this region. Associations between indices of urban residential greenness and greyness with respiratory diseases differ by region. The pathways underlying these associations require further exploration.
The following are the funding bodies and awards that supported the work featured herein: INMA Asturias: This study was funded by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Red INMA G03/176 and CB06/02/0041), the Spanish Ministry of Health (FIS-FEDER PI042018, PI09/02311, and PI13/02429), the Obra Social Cajastur/Fundación Liberbank, and the University of Oviedo. INMA Gipuzkoa: This study was funded by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (FIS-PI06/0867, FIS-PS09/ 00090, and FIS-PI13/02187), the Department of Health of the Basque Government (2005111093, 2009111069, and 2013111089), and the Provincial Government of Gipuzkoa (DFG06/004 and DFG08/001) (as annual agreements with the municipalities of the study area: Zumarraga, Urretxu, Legazpi, Azkoitia and Azpeitia, and Beasain). INMA Sabadell: This study was funded by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Red INMA G03/176) and the Generalitat de Catalunya CIRIT (1999SGR 00241). The 4–5 year follow-up was funded by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Red INMA G03/176, CB06/02/0041, PI041436, and PI081151 incl. FEDER funds), the Generalitat de Catalunya CIRIT (1999SGR 00241), and the Fundació La marató de TV3 (090430). INMA Valencia: This study was funded by Grants from the European Union (FP7-ENV-2011 cod 282957 and HEALTH.2010.2.4.5-1), the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Red INMA G03/176, CB06/02/0041, FIS-FEDER 03/1615, 04/ 1509, 04/1112, 04/1931, 05/1079, 05/1052, 06/1213, 07/0314, 09/02647, 11/0178, 11/01007, 11/02591, 11/02038, 13/1944, 13/2032, 14/0891, and 14/1687) and the Conselleria de Sanitat, Generalitat Valenciana. Christina Tischer is the recipient of a European Respiratory Society Fellowship (RESPIRE2-2015-7251). Elaine Fuertes is the recipient of a Marie Curie Individual Fellowship (MSCA-IF-2016). Payam Dadvand is funded by a Ramón y Cajal fellowship (RYC-2012-10995) awarded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.
FIS-FEDER PI042018 FIS-FEDER PI09/02311 FIS-FEDER PI13/02429 RESPIRE2-2015-7251 Marie Curie/MSCA-IF-2016 Ramón y Cajal/RYC-2012-10995